Biological marks of early-life socioeconomic experience is detected in the adult in inflammatory transcriptome
Consistent evidence is accumulating to link lower socioeconomic position (SEP) and poorer health, and the in inflammatory system stands out as a potential pathway through which socioeconomic environment is biologically embedded. Using bloodderived genome-wide transcriptional pro les from 268 Italian participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, we evaluated the association between early life, young and later adulthood SEP and the expression of 845 genes involved in human in inflammatory responses. These were examined individually and jointly using several in inflammatory scores. Our results consistently show that participants whose father had a manual (as compared to nonmanual) occupation exhibit, later in life, a higher in inflammatory score, hence indicating an overall increased level of expression for the selected in inflammatory-related genes. Adopting a life course approach, these associations remained statistically signi cant upon adjustment for later-in-life socioeconomic experiences. Sensitivity analyses indicated that our ndings were not a ected by the way the in inflammatory score was calculated, and were replicated in an independent study. Our study provides additional evidence that childhood SEP is associated with a sustainable upregulation of the in inflammatory transcriptome, independently of subsequent socioeconomic experiences. Our results support the hypothesis that early social inequalities impacts adult physiology.