Health inequalities: Embodied evidence across biological layers

Publication date: 
December, 2019

Paolo Vineis, Cyrille Delpierre, Raphaële Castagné, Giovanni Fiorito, Cathal McCrory, Mika Kivimaki, Silvia Stringhini, Cristian Carmeli, Michelle Kelly-Irving

Socioeconomic disparities have been documented in major non-communicable diseases and in their risk factors, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthful diet and heavy drinking. However, a key research question has remained unanswered: is there a separate biological embodiment of socio-economic conditions underlying health disparities, additional and independent of those risk factors? As lifelong socioeconomic circumstances cannot be randomised, one way forward is the examination of different biological layers of evidence, including molecular changes.