The biological effect of low education is not as direct as that of smoking

Many social scientists believe that a variety of social environmental factors have an effect on the epigenome, which is the set of chemical changes to the DNA and its related proteins. However, so far there has been little evidence to date in humans about that. According to a group of researchers, social environmental conditions have a smaller epigenetic effect compared to factors with a more direct biological impact – such as smoking, alcohol consumption or body mass index.